Glossary

From 3D Scan to ZDH

On this page you will find an alphabetical overview of the most important terms and abbreviations related to the LEROSH project.

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LEROSH - ABC

3D Scan

Optical 3D data acquisition of the real environment

Abrasive

With rubbing, abrasive effect

Add-on

Expanding utility program

AI

Artificial intelligence, automation of intelligent behavior and machine learning

actuator

Motor function and moving parts of a robot

Algorithm

Method of solving problems with schematic calculation processes

App

Application

AR

Augmented Reality > Blending of real and digital environment

B2B or B2C

Business-to-Business or Business-to-Customer – business relationship

Backend

Basic, invisible program level of a computer application (<>Frontend)

processing classes

Grouping of different robot tasks according to e.g. diverse geometries

Best Practice

Success method

BIT

Commissioner for Innovation and Technology of the ZDH

BMBF

Federal Ministry of Education and Research

BVMF

Federal Association Model and Mold Making

CAD

Computer Aided Design > 3D-Component design

CAM

Computer Aided Manufacturing > Programming of production processes

CNC

Computerized Numerical Control > Computer controlled use of machine tools

COBOT

Collaborative Robot (safe robots to cooperate with humans)

Computer Vision

Image processing of camera images to recognize / extract content

Deep Learning

Machine learning with the use of multilayer neural networks

Demonstrator

Preliminary stage to prototype for testing and presentation of various developments

DLR

DLR – German Aerospace Center

DOF

Degree of Freedom

Real-time control

Control signals processed directly in the (robot) movement in milliseconds

End effector

V.a. tool on the robot head (last element of the kinematic chain)

F+E

Research and development

Feature (recognition)

Feature (- identification of certain features)

Feedback-Loop

Feedback-Loop

Fraunhofer IWU

Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology

Frontend

Visible part of a user software (<>Backend)

Haptics - Haptic perception

Teaching of the sense of touch – active touch with hands (<> tactile stimuli, passive, e.g. pressure).

HMI

Human Machine Interface

Hololens

Product Name for Augemented / Mixed Reality Glasses

HPI

Heinz-Piest-Institut for Craft technology

HWK

Chamber of Crafts

iiwa

Intelligent Industrial Work Assistant (Cobot of DLR and KUKA)

Impedance control

(lat. impedire = inhibit) Control of the system’s compliance, i.e. the link between force and position in the event of object contact.
Basis for force-based machining, scanning of surfaces or also safety devices in collaborative use.

Interface

‘Interface’ between computers or humans and computers (often input device)

Inverse kinematics

Calculation of the joint angles of the arm elements based on the pose (position and orientation) of the end effector

IP

Intellectual Property

IR

Industrial robots (require protective devices <> Cobot)

Iteration

Process of multiple repetition and iteration loop – approximation method

Calibration

Comparison with reference standard

KI

Artificial intelligence, automation of intelligent behavior and machine learning

Kinect

Product name for (gaming) hardware for optical recognition of human movements and gestures

Kinematics

Field of mechanics in which the motion of bodies is described purely geometrically with the quantities location, time, velocity and acceleration

KIT

Institut for technology, Karlsruhe

KNN

Artificial neural networks

Compatible

(Of devices, hardware and software components and the like) matching, capable of being combined, capable of being assembled into a system

Convex / Concave

Curvature outward / inward

Grain size

Grain size / particle size of abrasives (e.g. 100 coarse > 1000 fine)

Cognitive Robotics

Robots recognize their environment in order to derive actions from it

Kollision

Collision of robot / tool / workpiece (> collision control in simulation)

Force control

Control of the force with which a robot acts on its environment, i.e. on an object or also on a human being

Force / torque sensor

Measures force and torque application in three spatial directions each

LBR

Lightweight robot

LEROSH

Learning robot sanding technology for the craft sector

Living Lab

Real laboratory’ in cooperation between science and civil society

Lot size (1- infinite)

Quantity of identical products from a special production order

Lot size 1

Special or custom made

Manipulator

In robotics, a manipulator is the device that enables physical interaction with the environment, i.e. the moving part of the robot assembly that performs the mechanical work of the robot. In principle, the manipulator is the part usually associated with an industrial robot

Centerline roughness value

The center-line roughness Ra (in µm) is a measure of the roughness of a technical surface that has been produced, for example, by machining, forming or reshaping processes

ML

Machine learning, the system learns from examples and applies this experience to new ane

Motion Tracking (Capture)

Recording of movements for analysis / utilization in digital models

MRK

Human-robot collaboration (other variants: cooperation or coexistence)

No-Code-Robotic

Operation of robots without programming or expert knowledge

Open Source (Software)

‘Open source code’, software available to all free of charge

Part-To-Tool-Prinzip

The workpiece is guided to the tool (e.g. belt sander)

Perception

Perception

PR

Personal Robot – Personal robot (more autonomous than industrial robot, tends to be sensory, capable of learning)

Plug-In

Small software program that can be integrated into larger ones

Polish

Low material removal for smoothing with the help of a polishing agent

Roughness classes

(N 1-12) according to centerline roughness value (Ra , specified in µm) of…Ultrafine grinding (0.1) … coarse grinding… Roughing (3.2)

PTKA

Project sponsor Karlsruhe (KIT)

Friction

Force between bodies > static, dynamic and rolling friction

RL

Reinforcement Learning = autonomous, reinforcing machine learning from experience

Robot-Sharing

Robot / software rental concept for smaller businesses

Robots

From czech ‘robota’ = works

Robotik Toolbox

Product name for user kit for the use of robotics in the craft sector

Robot skill

Ability learned by the robot to perform certain actions independently

Robot cell

Enclosed working area of the robot

ROS

Robot Operating System

SARA

Safe Autonomous Robotic Assistant (Cobot of DLR)

Scope

Scope of services, project object or goal

Sanding

Cutting manufacturing process for the fine machining of workpieces

Abrasive material

Grain materials on: Paper, fabric, nonwoven, sponge, tool/disc

Ground

The way something is polished

Sensors

Means of sensing the environment (visual, after force, tactile, acoustic, after acceleration…)

Supervised Learning

Supervised (machine) learning (<> unsupervised, often pattern recognition)

System integration

Setup of complete robot systems in their working environment

Teachen

(manual) input of desired positions or movements of the robot

Tool-To-Part-Prinzip

The tool (e.g. random orbital sander) is guided to the workpiece

Trajectory

A trajectory is a curve in the plane or space parmeterized over time. The individual points of the curve represent positions at specific points in time (motion curve)

TRL

Technology Readiness Level (1-9)

UI

User Interface

UR

Product name: Universal Robot

Usability

Suitability for use by specific users

Use Case

Use case, abstracted test description

UX

User Experience

VR

Virtual Reality- creation and perception of a seemingly real environment

Workaround

Problem solving as a workaround for the actual problem

Workflow

Organization of workflows

ZDH

German Confederation of Skilled Crafts